Important Leaders in Angkor
Jayavarman II(AD800 - AD835): Jayavarman II was a young man related to the Chenla royal family and was educated at the court of the Saliendra Kingdom in Java. He returned to Chenla in AD790, and became king around AD800. Within his 35-year reign he extended his kingdom north and east of Chenla, as well as responsible of developing the Khmer Kingdom by establishing its constitution, religion and capital. He built several capitals, including his principal capital at Roluos, about 10 miles southeast of Siem Reap we know today. He named the city Hariharalaya (a Hindu god which is made up of the gods Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu in one image).
jayavarmanii.jpg The painting to left, shows a ritual with Jayavarman II (right) and a priest.

Indravarman I (c. AD877 - c. AD886): Indravarman I was the nephew of Jayavarman II and ruled after Jayavarman III. He brought peace and unity to the Khmer Empire. He also built a large reservoire to the north of the capital.

Yasovarman I(AD889 - c. AD915), son of Indravarman I, is believed to be a tyrannical ruler and moves the capital city from Hariharalaya to modern site of Angkor.

Harshavarman I(c. AD915 - AD923), Yasovarman's brother, rules Kambuja.He also builds his temple-mountain, the Baksei Chamkrong, a stone pyramid with a single tower.

Harshavarman I's uncle, Jayavarman IV(c. AD 928 - c. AD 941), splits the kingdom and sets up a rival capital, Koh Ker.

(c. AD 944 - AD 968) Rajendravarman created many temples including, Pre Rup, Bat Chum, Kutisvara, Srah Srang. He also attacks the Cham Kingdom, east of Kambuja.

Jayavarman V's (968 -1000) reign was marked by peace.

Suryavarman I (c. 1002 - 1049) invades the Khmer Empire and claims that his mother was descended from Indravarman I. His early years of reign marked as territorial gain, but the later years were marked by peace and structure building. He is also responsible for the planning of Angkor Wat.
After the death of Suryavarman I, the empire shrinks and is constantly invaded by the people of Cham.

Suryavarman II (1113 - c. 1150) regains most of the territories lost, and also concentrates on the building many temples including the Khmer architectures greatest achievement, Angkor Wat. He tries to conquer Annam in AD 1150, and leads his army through jungle mountains, where he and his soldiers die of fever.
img_4033.jpg A wooden sculpture of Jayavarman Vii's head, this sculpture tells us that Jayavarman could have been a strong believer of Buddhism because he has long ears, it represents a person's life expectancy.
Jayavarman VII( 1181 - c. 1220) takes revenge on the Chams for destroying Angkor and claims Champa into a vassal state of the Khmer Empire. He begins building Angkor Thom, and along the main roads leading to Angkor, he builds 102 hospitals and 121 pilgrim hostels, leading to heavy taxes. Jayavarman VII dies and the kingdom declines.The Siamese invade Angkor from the west.

Synopsis of the Khmer Government
The Khmer government structure was based on the Hinduism. In the Imperial courts, the god-king was present, as well as poets, priests, teachers and scholars. Although the king is the highest in the hierachy, many of the decisions were discussed and decided with priests and their two major religion, Hinduism and Buddhism. The common people did not have much say in the decision they make because most of them were farmers. The lowest in the hierachy were slaves, mostly from neighboring countries, but the Khmer people could also be slaves if they didn't pay their rents to the upper class. The slaves belonged to the temples and were known as 'Gods Slaves'.


Work Cited
-Freeman, Michael, and Claude Jacques. "Khmer Rulers." Ancient Angkor. 1999. By
Michael Freeman and Claude Jacques. Revised ed. Bangkok: River Books, 2003.
12. (text)
-Mabbett, Ian W. "Angkor." Encycloperdia of Asian History. Vol. 1. 3. (text)

Picture/Photograph
- Jayarvarman II. Painting. 11 Oct. 2006 <http://www.angkor1431.tripod.com/
index/id36.html>.
- Jayavarman VII. Sculpture.